126. Balge-Crozier, Marjorie P. “Through the Eyes of the Artist: Another Look at Winslow Homer’s Sharpshooter.” Vol. 21, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 2-10.
This essay takes a fresh look at one of Winslow Homer’s designs reproduced in the 15 November 1862 issue of Harper’s Weekly. The author provides a synopsis of other visual works depicting sharpshooters and discusses the image in terms of its vision and different levels of meaning. The image is of particular importance because Homer used this subject for his first oil painting.
127. Blaugrund, Annette. “John James Audubon: Producer, Promoter, and Publisher.” Vol. 21, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 11-19.
Blaugrund provides an excellent introduction to Audubon’s life and the importance of The Birds of America, focusing on his attempts to sell subscriptions to his work. The article concludes with his death and his widow’s sale of the original watercolors to the New-York Historical Society.
128. Hoolihan, Christopher. “Wood Engraving and American Medical Publishing in the Early Nineteenth Century.” Vol. 21, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 20-28.
Changes in publishing, the creation of an educated elite, and the professionalization of the medical profession increased the need for medical literature. Hoolihan discusses the alternative processes for the production of illustrations, focusing on the most popular and economical–wood engraving. Between 1800 and 1810, the firm of Collins & Perkins pioneered the use of wood engravings in their medical texts and realized the great economic advantages to the publisher of publishing illustrations with the text, as opposed to printing the illustrations separately and binding them in. Hoolihan’s observations are applicable to other genres of literature.